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A boiler is a closed vessel in which drinking water or other liquid is heated. The liquid does not necessarily boil. (In THE UNITED STATES, the word "furnace" is generally used if the purpose is never to boil the fluid.) The warmed or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in various heating system or processes applications, including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power era, food preparation, and sanitation.
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or of wrought iron historically. Stainless steel, especially of the austenitic types, is not found in wetted parts of boilers thanks to stress and corrosion corrosion cracking. However, ferritic stainless steel is often found in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used since it is more easily fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in newer times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.
For a lot of the Victorian "age group of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest quality of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was extracted from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), noted for the high quality of their rolled plate and its own suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice shifted towards the utilization of metal instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It should be noted, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode much slower than their modern-day metal counterparts, and are less vunerable to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers much superior to those of welded metal boilers.
Cast iron might be utilized for the heating system vessel of home water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in a few countries, their purpose is to produce warm water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of any of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or natural gas. Electric vapor boilers use level of resistance- or immersion-type heating system elements. Nuclear fission is utilized as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised heat exchangers called "vapor generators" (PWR). Temperature recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.
there are two solutions to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method
Direct method -immediate method of boiler efficiency test is more functional or more common
boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total steam circulation Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= level of gasoline use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)
indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we are in need of a subsequent parameter like
Ultimate analysis of energy (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Boilers can be classified into the following configurations:
Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" in which a fireplace heats a partially filled drinking water container from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large amounts of very low-pressure steam generally, barely above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was very low.
Flued boiler with a couple of large flues-an early forerunner or kind of fire-tube boiler.
Diagram of a fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume remaining above to support the vapor (vapor space). This is the kind of boiler used in almost all steam locomotives. Heat source is in the furnace or firebox that has to be held completely surrounded by the water in order to keep up the heat of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the path of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating system surface which may be further increased by making the gases invert direction through a second parallel tube or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); alternatively the gases may be studied along the sides and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-move boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel extends from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a lot of money of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly escalates the heating surface compared to a single tube and further enhances heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of vapor creation usually, but high steam storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mainly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to people of the gas or liquid variety.
Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, pipes filled up with drinking water are arranged inside a furnace in a genuine amount of possible configurations. Water tubes connect large drums Often, the low ones comprising drinking water and the top ones steam and drinking water; in other situations, like a mono-tube boiler, water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This kind generally gives high vapor creation rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/vapor is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized type of water-tube boiler where pipes are close together and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube vapor generator in which the tube is permanently filled up with water. In a flash boiler, the pipe is held so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into vapor and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in automobiles in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .
1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes the two above types have been combined in the following manner: the firebox consists of an assembly of water pipes, called thermic siphons. The gases then go through a typical firetube boiler. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives, but have fulfilled with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. In a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" water is contained inside solid iron areas. These areas are assembled on site to create the finished boiler.
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Technicians (ASME) develop specifications and regulation rules. For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing an array of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with security, design and security standards.
Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction as a consequence to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When drinking water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original travels and volume down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, vapor is a superb way of moving energy and high temperature around a site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but without the right boiler give food to water treatment, a steam-raising herb are affected from scale corrosion and formation. At best, this raises energy costs and can result in poor quality vapor, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failing and loss of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also squirt scalding-hot vapor and smoke from the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to use factories can potentially demolish entire structures.
A boiler that has a loss of feed drinking water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous. If feed drinking water is sent into the vacant boiler then, the small cascade of inbound water instantly boils on connection with the superheated metallic shell and leads to a violent explosion that can't be managed even by basic safety steam valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is bigger than the make-up water source could replace. The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a method to help prevent this condition from happening, and thus reduce their insurance promises.
Superheated steam boiler
A superheated boiler on a steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce steam to be utilized at saturation temperature; that is, saturated vapor. Superheated vapor boilers vaporize the water and then further temperature the vapor in a superheater. This provides vapor at much higher temperatures, but can reduce the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating place because the bigger steam temp requires a higher flue gas exhaust heat. There are many ways to circumvent this issue, by providing an economizer that heats the give food to water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. There are benefits to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both steam generation and its own utilization: benefits in input heat to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler complication and expense. There may also be practical limitations in using damp steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.
Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to escape, the high temperature and pressure can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.
Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The steam piping is directed through the flue gas path in the boiler furnace. The temperatures in this field is normally between 1,300 and 1,600 ∞C (2,372 and 2,912 ∞F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb heat by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing high temperature from a liquid. Some are a combination of both types. Through either method, the extreme high temperature in the flue gas path will also high temperature the superheater vapor piping and the steam within. While the temperatures of the steam in the superheater goes up, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler. Almost all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent damage to the turbine blading and associated piping.
Supercritical steam generator
Boiler for a charged power place.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of energy. They operate at supercritical pressure. In contrast to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical steam generator operates at such a higher pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the liquid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is no generation of steam bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which steam bubbles can form. As the liquid expands through the turbine levels, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it can work turning the turbine which converts the electrical generator from which power is eventually extracted. The fluid at that time may be considered a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets as it passes into the condenser. This leads to slightly less gasoline use and therefore less greenhouse gas production. The word "boiler" should not be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this product.
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Boiler fittings and accessories
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a security by setting the upper limit of steam pressure, the operating pressuretrol, which controls when the boiler fires to maintain pressure, and for boilers outfitted with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the quantity of fire.
Protection valve: It can be used to relieve pressure and prevent possible explosion of the boiler.
Water level indications: They show the operator the level of fluid in the boiler, known as a sight cup also, water gauge or water column.
Bottom blowdown valves: They provide a means for removing solid particulates that condense and rest on underneath of the boiler. As the name implies, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to press these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This allows a small quantity of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would business lead to foaming and cause water droplets to be transported over with the steam - a disorder known as priming. Blowdown is also often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a liquid level in a tank. Most found on a water boiler commonly.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where in fact the steam can 'flash' safely and become used in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere as the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/continuous heat recovery system: This technique allows the boiler to blowdown only when makeup water is moving to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the make-up water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the temperature of the makeup water.
Hand openings: They are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to allow for inspections & installing tubes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Steam drum internals, a series of display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that is utilized to turn from the burner or shut down energy to the boiler to prevent it from jogging once the water runs below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burned without drinking water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown line: It provides a means for removing foam or other light-weight non-condensible chemicals that have a tendency to float on top of water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It really is designed to circulate water back to the boiler after it has expelled a few of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater collection. This may be fitted to the comparative aspect of the boiler, just below water level, or to the top of the boiler.
Top feed: Within this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This may reduce boiler exhaustion caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over some trays water is quickly warmed which can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: Some pipes or bundles of tubes in the water drum or the steam drum made to cool superheated vapor, in order to provide auxiliary equipment that does not need, or may be damaged by, dry out steam.
Chemical substance injection line: A link with add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Main steam stop valve:
Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Energy oil system:energy oil heaters
Other essential items
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
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